Online education and the metaverse

Classroom practice

Annotated Bibliography of Classroom Practice in Virtual Worlds Teaching

Arancibia, M., Oliva, I., & Paiva, F. (2014). Meaning Processes mediated through a Protagonists’ Collaborative Learning PlatformComunicar, 21(42), 75-85. “Case study.”

Bernardino Lopes, J.; Cravino, J.P.; Maia, A.M.; Morgado, L.; Martins, P.; Cruz, G.; Fernandes, P.; Pinheiro, A. (2013). 3D simulators in professional training learning complex tasks overcoming material, economic, and human constraints. In “2013 2nd Experiment@ International Conference (’13)”, pp. 6-10. Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE. link

Bouta, H., & Paraskeva, F. (2013). The cognitive apprenticeship theory for the teaching of mathematics in an online 3D virtual environmentInternational Journal Of Mathematical Education In Science & Technology, 44(2), 159-178.

Chodos, D., Stroulia, E., King, S., & Carbonaro, M. (2014). A framework for monitoring instructional environments in a virtual worldBritish Journal Of Educational Technology, 45(1), 24-35. Recording and analyzing students’ in-world actions.

Cruz, G.; Maia, A.; Morgado, L.; Fonseca, B.; Paredes, H.; Bessa, F.; Rodrigues, C.; Martins, P. (2013). Designing User Learning Experience in Virtual Worlds: The Young Europeans for Democracy Serious Application. In Á. Rocha, A.M. Correia, T. Wilson, & K.A. Stroetmann (Eds.) Advances in Information Systems and Technologies, pp. 1117-1128. ISBN 978-3-642-36980-3. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. link

Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. W. (2012). Exploring the relationship between afforded learning tasks and learning benefits in 3D virtual learning environments. In M. Brown, M. Hartnett, & T. Stewart (Eds.), Future challenges, sustainable futures. Proceedings of the 29th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 236–245). Wellington, New Zealand: Massey University.

Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., Carlson, L., Gregory, S., & Tynan, B. (2011). An Australian and New Zealand scoping study on the use of 3D immersive virtual worlds in higher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(1), 1-15.

Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., Carlson, L., Gregory, S., & Tynan, B. (2011). Institutional support for and barriers to the use of 3D immersive virtual worlds in higher education. In G. Williams, N. Brown, M. Pittard, & B. Cleland (Eds.), Changing demands, changing directions. Proceedings of the 28th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 316-330). Hobart, Australia: University of Tasmania.

Dass, S., Dabbagh, N., & Clark, K. (2011). USING VIRTUAL WORLDS What the Research Says. Quarterly Review Of Distance Education, 12(2), 95-111. Virtual worlds are defined and 15 case studies are summarized through 3 lenses: inherent characteristics, pedagogical approach, and student perceptions.

De Freitas, S., Rebolledo-Mendez, G., Liarokapis, F., Magoulas, G., & Poulovassilis, A. (2010). Learning as immersive experiences: Using the four-dimensional framework for designing and evaluating immersive learning experiences in a virtual worldBritish Journal Of Educational Technology, 41(1), 69-85.

Dickey, M. (2011). The pragmatics of virtual worlds for K-12 educators: investigating the affordances and constraints of Active Worlds and Second Life with K-12 in-service teachersEducational Technology Research & Development, 59(1), 1-20.

Downey, S. (2011). i-MMOLE: Instructional Framework for Creating Virtual World Lessons. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning, 55(6), 33-41. “This article describes the underlying foundation of this framework and how to utilize i-MMOLE in the creation of one’s own virtual world based instruction”

Esteves, M.; Fonseca, B.; Morgado, L.; Martins, P. (2009). Using Second Life for Problem Based Learning in Computer Science ProgrammingJournal of Virtual Worlds Research, 1(2). link

Esteves, M., Fonseca, B., Morgado, L., & Martins, P. (2011). Improving teaching and learning of computer programming through the use of the Second Life virtual worldBritish Journal Of Educational Technology, 42(4), 624-637.

Gregory, S., Gregory, B., Reiners, T., Fardinpour, A., Hillier, M., Lee, M. J. W., . . . Larson, I. (2013). Virtual worlds in Australian and New Zealand higher education: Remembering the past, understanding the present and imagining the future. In H. Carter, M. Gosper, & J. Hedberg (Eds.), Electric dreams. Proceedings of the 30th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 312-324). Sydney, Australia: Macquarie University.

Gregory, S., Lee, M. J. W., Ellis, A., Gregory, B., Wood, D., Hillier, M., Campbell, M., Grenfell, J., Pace, S., Farley, H., Thomas, A., Cram, A. Sinnappan, S., Smith, K., Hay, L., Kennedy-Clark, S., Warren, I., Grant, S., Craven, D., Dreher, H., Matthews, C., Murdoch, D., & McKeown, L. (2010). Australian higher education institutions transforming the future of teaching and learning through 3D virtual worlds. In C. H. Steel, M. J. Keppell, P. Gerbic, & S. Housego (Eds.), Curriculum, technology & transformation for an unknown future. Proceedings of the 27th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 399-415). Brisbane, Australia: The University of Queensland.

Guzzetti, B.J., & Stokrocki, M. (2014). Reflections on Teaching and Learning in Virtual WorldsE-Learning and Digital Media, 10, 3, 243-260. This article reports on K 12 and college teachers’ perceptions of the educational uses of Second Life, identification of obstacles to incorporating this virtual world into instruction, and their recommendations for addressing those limitations.

Haisen Zhang1, H. (2013). Pedagogical challenges of spoken English learning in the Second Life virtual world: A case study. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 44(2), 243-254. Case study.

Howland, A. C., Rembisz, R., Wang-Jones, T. S., Heise, S. R., Brown, S. (2015). Developing a virtual assessment center. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 67, 110-126. doi:

The article uses a case study to explain the opportunities for team and leadership assessment in virtual world simulations. The case study was done with 30 MBA students from 10 different countries competing on teams of 3 or 4 in a business simulation competition. No two students on a team were from the same country or university. Organizational psychologists observed behavior during 16 hours of the competition (four three-hour sessions). The competition took place in VirBELA, a Unity3D based virtual world designed for education and business. The research lays some groundwork for how leadership assessment could be automated to reduce the cost of expensive facilitators and assessors.

Huang, Y., Backman, S., Chang, L., Backman, K., & McGuire, F. (2013). Experiencing student learning and tourism training in a 3D virtual world: An exploratory study. Journal Of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education (Elsevier Science), 13190-201.

Kim, C., Lee, S., & Kang, M. (2012). I became an attractive person in the virtual world: Users’ identification with virtual communities and avatars. Computers In Human Behavior, 28(5), 1663-1669.

Lee, M. J. W. (2009). How can 3D virtual worlds be used to support collaborative learning? An analysis of cases from the literature. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 5(1), 149-158. link

Lee, M. J. W., Dalgarno, B., Gregory, S., Carlson, L., & Tynan, B. (2013). How are Australian and New Zealand higher educators using 3D immersive virtual worlds in their teaching? In J. Willems, B. Tynan, & R. James (Eds.), Outlooks and opportunities in blended and distance learning (pp. 169–188). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. link

Lin, H., & Wang, H. (2014). Avatar creation in virtual worlds: Behaviors and motivations. Computers In Human Behavior, 34213-218. Developed 18-item scale on avatar creation motivation. Identified behavior patterns, motivational dimensions.

Lomanowska, A., & Guitton, M. (2014). My avatar is pregnant! Representation of pregnancy, birth, and maternity in a virtual worldComputers In Human Behavior, 31322-331.

Lowes, S., & Hamilton, G. (2013). Teaching Communication Skills to Medical Students in a Virtual WorldJournal Of Interactive Technology & Pedagogy, (3), 1-25.

Lopes, A.; Pires, B.; Cardoso, M.; Santos, A.; Peixinho, F.; Sequeira, P.; Morgado, L.; Paredes, H.; Foguet, O.C. (2009). Use of a virtual world system in sports coach education for reproducing team handball movementsJournal of Virtual Worlds Research, 1(2). link

Lukman, R., & Krajnc, M. (2012). Exploring Non-traditional Learning Methods in Virtual and Real-world EnvironmentsJournal Of Educational Technology & Society, 15(1), 237-247.

Mathews, S., Andrews, L., & Luck, E. (2012). Developing a Second Life virtual field trip for university students: an action research approachEducational Research, 54(1), 17-38.

Miller, C., Lee, M. J. W., Rogers, L., Meredith, G., & Peck, B. (2011). Enhancing tertiary healthcare education through 3D MUVE-based simulations. In G. Vincenti & J. Braman (Eds.), Teaching through multi-user virtual environments: Applying dynamic elements to the modern classroom (pp. 341–364). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. link

Morgan, E. (2013). Virtual Worlds: Integrating Second Life into the History ClassroomHistory Teacher, 46(4), 547-559. “Second Life used as a student meeting space and as a venue for the study of history. Students used the program for projects on a U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum project.”

Morgado, L. (2005). Framework for Computer Programming in Preschool and Kindergarten. Doctoral thesis. Vila Real, Portugal: University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro.

Muir, T., Allen, J., Rayner, C., & Cleland, B. (2013). Preparing pre-service teachers for classroom practice in a virtual world: A pilot study using Second Life. Journal Of Interactive Media In Education, 1-17. Pilot study with eight pre-service teachers.

Noteborn, G., Dailey-Hebert, A., Carbonell, K., & Gijselaers, W. (2014). Essential knowledge for academic performance: Educating in the virtual world to promote active learning. Teaching & Teacher Education, 37217-234. Provides recommendations for course designers and course developers to improve students’ performance.

Nussli, N., & Oh, K. (2014). The Components of Effective Teacher Training in the Use of Three-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Worlds for Learning and Instruction Purposes: A Literature Review. Journal Of Technology & Teacher Education, 22(2), 213-241. Key components of teacher training in 3D immersive worlds. link

Nussli, N., Oh, K., & Mccandless, K. (2014). Collaborative Science Learning in Three-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Worlds: Pre-Service Teachers’Experiences in Second Life. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 23(3), 253-284, link or link

Oh, K., & Nussli, N. (2014). Teacher training in the use of a three-dimensional immersive virtual world: Building understanding through first-hand experiences. Journal of Teaching and Learning with Technology, 3(1), 33-58. “Teacher training for special education teachers in the use of virtual worlds.” link

Okutsu, M., DeLaurentis, D., Brophy, S., & Lambert, J. (2013). Teaching an aerospace engineering design course via virtual worlds: A comparative assessment of learning outcomesComputers & Education, 60(1), 288-298.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). A qualitative research approach for the investigation and evaluation of adult users’ participation factors through collaborative e-learning activities in the virtual world of “Second Life”.In V. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of Research Teaching and Learning in K-20 Education (pp. 475-500). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). E-learning quality through Second Life: Exploiting, investigating and evaluating the efficiency parameters of collaborative activities in Higher Education. In V. Bryan & V. Wang (Ed.), Technology Use and Research Approaches for Community Education and Professional Development (pp. 250-273). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2012). Utilizing and evaluating the virtual world of Second Life for collaborative activities: A primary case study. In C. Karagiannidis, P. Politis & I. Karasavvidis (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th Pan-Hellenic Conference with International Participation «ICT in Education». University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece.

Pellas, N., Peroutseas, E. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). Virtual communities of inquiry (VCoI) for learning basic algorithmic structures with Open Simulator & Scratch4(OS): A case study from the Secondary Education in Greece. In K. Diamantaras, G. Evangelidis, Y. Manolopoulos, C. Georgiadis, P. Kefalas, D. Stamatis (Eds.), Balkan Conference in Informatics, BCI ’13 (pp. 187-194). Thessaloniki, Greece: ACM Press.

Pellas, N. (2014). The influence of computer self-efficacy, metacognitive self-regulation and self-esteem on student engagement in online learning programs: Evidence from the virtual world of Second Life. Computers in Human Behavior, 35(1), 157-170.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). Engaging students in blended and online collaborative courses at university level through Second Life: Comparative perspectives and instructional affordances. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia Journal. DOI:10.1080/13614568.2013.856958.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). The impact of computer self-efficacy, situational interest and academic self-concept in virtual communities of inquiry during the distance learning procedures through Second Life.World Wide Web Journal, 17(4), 695-722.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). On the value of Second Life for students’ engagement in hybrid and online university-level courses: A comparative study from Higher education in Greece. Education and Information Technologies. DOI: 10.1007/s10639-013-9294-4

Pereira, Â.; Martins, P.; Morgado, L.; & Fonseca, B. (2009). A virtual environment study in entrepreneurship education of young childrenJournal of Virtual Worlds Research, 1(2). link

Rahim, N. (2013). Collaboration and knowledge sharing using 3D virtual world on Second Life. Education For Information, 30(1), 1-40.

Stokrocki, M. (2014). Art Treasure Quests in Second Life: A Multi-Literacy AdventureArt Education, 67(2), 37-42. Treasure quests in virtual worlds can help students develop multi-literacy communication skills and promote community, offering insights about art teaching and learning.