Exploring the virtual classroom

Online education and the metaverse

Theory of VW Education

Annotated Bibliography of Virtual Worlds Education Theory

Anstadt, S., Bradley, S., & Burnette, A. (2013). Virtual Worlds: Relationship Between Real Life and Experience in Second Life. International Review Of Research In Open & Distance Learning, 14(4), 160-190.  Of interest to those in social work, psychology, mental health work.

Behm-Morawitz, E. (2013). Mirrored selves: The influence of self-presence in a virtual world on health, appearance, and well-beingComputers In Human Behavior, 29(1), 119-128.

Billieux, J., Van der Linden, M., Achab, S., Khazaal, Y., Paraskevopoulos, L., Zullino, D., & Thorens, G. (2013). Why do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of AzerothComputers In Human Behavior, 29(1), 103-109.

Cruz, A., Paredes, H., Fonseca, B., Morgado, L., & Martins, P. (2014). Can Presence Improve Collaboration in 3D Virtual Worlds?Procedia Technology, 13, 47-55.

Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. W. (2012). Exploring the relationship between afforded learning tasks and learning benefits in 3D virtual learning environments. In M. Brown, M. Hartnett, & T. Stewart (Eds.), Future challenges, sustainable futures. Proceedings of the 29th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 236–245). Wellington, New Zealand: Massey University. pdf

Duncan, I., Miller, A., & Jiang, S. (2012). A taxonomy of virtual worlds usage in education. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 43(6), 949-964. Focuses on the uses of virtualworlds for education and synthesises over 100 published academic papers, reports and educational websites from around the world.

Faiola, A., Newlon, C., Pfaff, M., & Smyslova, O. (2013). Correlating the effects of flow and telepresence in virtual worlds: Enhancing our understanding of user behavior in game-based learningComputers In Human Behavior, 29(3), 1113-1121.

Fox, J., Bailenson, J., & Tricase, L. (2013). The embodiment of sexualized virtual selves: The Proteus effect and experiences of self-objectification via avatars. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(3), 930-938.

Hammick, J., & Lee, M. (2014). Do shy people feel less communication apprehension online? The effects of virtual reality on the relationship between personality characteristics and communication outcomesComputers In Human Behavior, 33302-310. Shy individuals felt less apprehension in virtual setting

Hasler, B., Tuchman, P., & Friedman, D. (2013). Virtual research assistants: Replacing human interviewers by automated avatars in virtual worlds. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(4), 1608-1616.

Hassouneh, D., & Brengman, M. (2014). A motivation-based typology of social virtual world users. Computers In Human Behavior, 33330-338.

Krange, I., & Arnseth, H. (2012). Students’ meaning making in science: solving energy resource problems in virtual worlds combined with spreadsheets to develop graphs. Cultural Studies Of Science Education, 7(3), 585-605.

Kuksa, I. & Childs, M., 2014. Making Sense of Space: The design and experience of virtual spaces as a tool to communicate, Cambridge: Chados Publishing.

Kurilovas, E., Kubilinskiene, S., & Dagiene, V. (2014). Web 3.0 – Based personalisation of learning objects in virtual learning environments. Computers In Human Behavior, 30654-662.

Lee, E. A., Wong, K. W., & Fung, C. C. (2010). How does desktop virtual reality enhance learning outcomes? A structural equation modeling approach. Computers & Education, 55, 1424–1442.

Lee, M. J. W. (2009). How can 3D virtual worlds be used to support collaborative learning? An analysis of cases from the literature. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 5(1), 149-158. link to pdf    Excited at the prospects of engaging their Net Generation students, educators worldwide are attempting to exploit the affordances of threedimensional (3D) virtual worlds such as Second Life, citing collaborative learning as rationale, though often without careful consideration of the design of learning activities to support and enable collaboration. Drawing on three recent examples of 3D virtual worlds in education, the primary aim of this article is to critically assess the evidence that well-designed learning interventions using these types of environments are able to exhibit the key ingredients or elements of collaborative learning. The article concludes with a consideration of some of the problems and challenges that exist, before offering number of recommendations for practitioners.

Lee, M. J. W., & Dalgarno, B. (2011). Scaffolding discovery learning in 3D virtual environments: Challenges and considerations for instructional design. In S. Hai-Jew (Ed.), Virtual immersive and 3D learning spaces: Emerging technologies and trends (pp. 138-169). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi

Lu, L. (2013). 3D Virtual Worlds as Art Media and Exhibition Arenas: Students’ Responses and Challenges in Contemporary Art Education. Studies In Art Education, 54(3), 232-245. Student creation and criticism of art in VWs is advantageous in art education.

Luse, A., Mennecke, B., & Triplett, J. (2013). The changing nature of user attitudes toward virtual world technology: A longitudinal study. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(3), 1122-1132. Results show that while self-efficacy increases over time, user acceptance decreases in a highly correlated pattern. A second study investigates the underlying causes of the observed pattern of user acceptance using a content analysis of written reflections of user experiences. Both studies paint a detailed picture of user intentions and some of the reasons these intentions developed after use.

Merchant, Z., Goetz, E., Cifuentes, L., Keeney-Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. (2014). Effectiveness of virtual reality-based instruction on students’ learning outcomes in K-12 and higher education: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 7029-40.

Minocha, S. & Reeves, A. (2010), Design of learning spaces in 3D virtual worlds: an empirical investigation of Second LifeLearning, Media and Technology, Vol. 35, No. 2, 111–137. link

Minocha, S.y & Hardy, C. (2011). Designing navigation and wayfinding in 3D virtual learning spaces, 4th Annual Virtual Worlds Best Practices in Education Conference, Second Life. link

Morgado, L.; Varajão, J.; Coelho, D.; Rodrigues, C.; Sancín, C.; Castello, V. (2010). The Attributes and Advantages of Virtual Worlds for Real World TrainingThe Journal of Virtual Worlds and Education 1(1), 15-35. pdf

Nishimura, H., Lim, K. & Koyamada, K. (2012), The Abyss Observatory – Designing for Remote Collaboration, Self-directed Discovery and Intuition Development in Multi-user Interactive 3D Virtual EnvironmentsJ of Virtual Worlds Research, Volume 5, Number 2, Asian Perspectives. link

Noteborn, G., Bohle Carbonell, K., Dailey-Hebert, A., & Gijselaers, W. (2012). The role of emotions and task significance in Virtual EducationInternet & Higher Education, 15(3), 176-183.

Pellas, N. (2014). The development of a virtual learning platform for teaching concurrent programming languages in the Secondary Education: The use of Open Sim and Scratch4OS. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 10(1), 129-143.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2012). Re-thinking a Cognitive presence framework for the utilization and transferability of the Jigsaw technique in open source virtual worlds. Bulletin of the Technical Committee on Learning Technology, 14(3), 24-27.

Pellas, N. (2014). A cybernetic framework to articulate the organizational complexity of users’ interactions with the Jigsaw technique in an Open Sim standalone server. International Journal of Innovation and Learning (in press).

Pellas, N. (2014). A theoretical cybernetic macro-script to articulate the organizational complexity of cyber entities’ collaborative interactions in virtual worlds. International Journal of Learning and Change (in press). Pellas, N. (2012). Towards a beneficial formalization of cyber entities’ interactions during the e-learning process in the virtual world of “Second Life”. In P. Renna (Ed.), Production and Manufacturing System Management: Coordination approaches and multi-site Planning (pp. 278-314). Hershey, PA: Engineering Science Reference.

Pellas, N. (2012). A conceptual “cybernetic” methodology for organizing and managing the e-learning process through [D-] CIVEs: The case of “Second Life”. In P. Renna (Ed.), Production and Manufacturing System Management: Coordination approaches and multi-site Planning (pp. 278-314). Hershey, PA: Engineering Science Reference.

Pellas, N. (2013). Towards a theoretical “cybernetic” framework: Discovering the pedagogical value of the virtual world “Second Life”. In K. Burgga & N. Zaman (Eds.), Software Development techniques for constructive information systems design (pp. 128-182). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. (2013). An innovative “cybernetic” organization improvement plan through participatory action research in persistent “open source” virtual worlds. In T. Issa, P. Isaias, & P. Kommers (Eds.), Information Systems and technology for organization in a Networked society (pp. 107-129). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. (2013). Theoretical foundations of a CSCL script in persistent virtual worlds according to the Contemporary Learning Theories and Models. In N. Efraim (Ed.), Collaborative Processes and Decision Making in Organizations (pp. 72-107). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. (2014). Unraveling a progressive inquiry script in persistent virtual worlds: Theoretical foundations and decision processes for constructing a socio-cultural learning framework. In Z. Jin, Exploring Implicit Cognition: Learning, Memory, and Social-Cognitive Processes. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Ramdass, D. (2012). The role of cognitive apprenticeship in learning science in a virtual world. Cultural Studies Of Science Education, 7(4), 985-992. “This article extends the discussion started by Margaret Beier, Leslie Miller, and Shu Wang’s (2012) paper, Science games and the development of possible selves. In this paper, I suggest that a theoretical framework based on a sociocultural theory of learning is critical in learning in a virtual environment.”

Schiller, S., Mennecke, B., Nah, F., & Luse, A. (2014). Institutional boundaries and trust of virtual teams in collaborative design: An experimental study in a virtual world environment. Computers In Human Behavior, 35565-577.

Shen, C., Monge, P., & Williams, D. (2014). Virtual Brokerage and Closure: Network Structure and Social Capital in a Massively Multiplayer Online Game. Communication Research, 41(4), 459-480.  Social networks were constructed from behavioral server logs of EverQuest II, a Massively Multiplayer Online Game. Results provided strong support for the structural model, demonstrating that players’ network brokerage positively predicted their task performance in the game and players embedded in closed networks were more likely to trust each other.

Wang, S. (2012). Applying a 3D situational virtual learning environment to the real world business-an extended research in marketing. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 43(3), 411-427.

Yee, N., & Bailenson, J. (2007). The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self-Representation on BehaviorHuman Communication Research, 33(3), 271-290.

Yoon, T., & George, J. (2013). Why aren’t organizations adopting virtual worlds?Computers In Human Behavior, 29(3), 772-790.

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